Mortgages and Chametz

Daf 350 (Pesachim 27a-27b)

May one benefit from a product produced jointly by a permitted and a forbidden factor? If not from Biblically forbidden factors, may one benefit from a product produced jointly by permitted and rabbinically forbidden factors?

The Sages declare chametz must be burned. The gemara objects, “If one does not find wood with which to burn the chametz, shall he sit idly and not fulfill the mitzvah to eliminate chametz?”

Daf 351 (Pesachim 28a-28b)

R’Yehudah’s argument by analogy against the requirement to burn chametz is refuted by his own argument (by analogy). leading Rava to note, “When the arrow-maker is killed by his arrows, through his own handiwork he is repaid.”

The rabbis argue over whether chametz must be crumbled before being cast into an ocean or river.

Mishnah. A gentile who owns chametz through Pesach may benefit from it; a Jew may not.

Gemara. The gemara seeks to identify whose opinion is reflected in the mishnah, and also the source of the commandment to eat matzah.

Daf 352 (Pesachim 29a-29b)

Can one eat a gentile’s chametz even on Pesach? Rashi says this is indeed the case, at least on a Biblical level. Tosafos disagrees: “by accepting it from a gentile to eat, the Jew acquires ownership . . .”

All agree “we do not redeem consecrated items in order to feed them to dogs,” but disagree over whether items that may eventually be sold should be treated as though they are money now. The final ruling on this issue (if there is one) may resolve the question of whether one may benefit from chametz one has been forbidden to eat.

Daf 353 (Pesachim 30a-30b)

The rabbis dispute Rava’s ruling that the halakah follows R’Shimon in permitting chametz that is left over after Pesach. It is suggested that R’Shimon permitted the chametz in mixtures but not undiluted.

The rabbis discuss which pots and dishes may be treated and used on Pesach.

Mishnah. Here are rules for when chametz is used as security for a loan: for a Jew borrowing from a gentile, the chametz is permitted after Pesach but not if the roles are reversed.

Gemara. The rabbis attempt to apply the Mishnah to a defaulted mortagage.

Daf 354 (Pesachim 31a-31b)

If a borrower defaults, is the lender’s ownership retroactive to the creation of the loan? Is it different if one of the parties is a gentile? (“It emerges that according to all opinions a gentile does not acquire the security of a Jew.”)

Mishnah. “Concerning chametz upon which a ruin collapsed: It is regarded as having been removed . . .”

Gemara. Rav Chisda says, “But the owner must also nullify the chametz in his heart.”

Mishnah. Here is the penalty for one who eats terumah that is chametz on Pesach.

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