Subterfuges and Legal Technicalities

Daf 203-205 (Shabbat 140a-142b)


Daf 203 (Shabbat 140a-140b)

There is a dispute regarding whether mustard may be kneaded on Shabbes only by hand or only using a utensil. R’Yochanan says at first that both are permitted but then reverses himself. R’Elazar, who had prohibited any mixing, eventually permitted mixing only by hand. R’Yochanan’s stringent ruling prevails, after which the gemara summarizes other stringent rulings.

Mishnah. Here are more rules on how one is permitted to prepare food on Shabbes.

Gemara. The gemara seeks to determine if restrictions in the mishnah are Biblical or rabbinic. It goes on to discuss the proper way to treat a freshly laundered linen shirt, and how to care for clothing in general.

Rav Chisda offers his daughters advice on how to lie to their husbands: “The husband will hold your pearl in one hand and the kiln in one hand. You, however, should offer them the pearl, but the kiln you should not offer until they are tormented, and only then should you offer it to them.”

Mishnah. Here are rules for handling food for animals.

Gemara. The gemara seeks to understand a dispute on whether to move animal feed that is proximate to excrement.

Daf 204 (Shabbat 141a-141b)

“We may move the leftovers of a donkey and place them before an ox, but not vice versa.”

Mishnah. Here are rules for moving straw on Shabbes; also a launderer’s press.

Gemara. Is it permitted to lift a radish that has been plucked but then buried partially (to be preserved)? This is followed by several other questions that concern unusual situations that may or may not be desecrations of the Sabbath.

A woman is not permitted to go out in new shoes on Shabbes (lest she come to remove them and carry them because they have not yet been broken in). Bar Kappara permits her provided she has worn the shoe for at least an hour before Shabbes.

Perek 21. Mishnah. One may lift his child on Shabbes, even if the child is holding a stone; likewise, a basket with a stone in it.

Gemara. R’Nasson explains, “a living creature supports its own weight . . . [i.e.] one is exempt for carrying out a live person.”

Daf 205 (Shabbat 142a-142b)

The gemara suggests that permitting the lifting of a child who is holding a stone on Shabbes is meant to teach that if the child is holding an object of value (i.e. one that the parent would bend down to pick up), then the lifting of the child is not permitted. (While the “one who carries another person who is holding an object is regarded as carrying an object is regarded as carrying the object himself,” this is permitted in the case of a child in distress holding a stone, but once there is added concern that the parent might come to literally carry the object– not just be deemed to have the status of carrying as a legal technicality, the distress of the child is not sufficient justification.)

Mishnah. Here are rules for displacing objects on Shabbes that one would not be permitted to move directly; for example, “money that is on a pillow– one may shake the pillow so that it falls off.”

Gemara. The gemara suggests that the mishnah applies only if the object had been left where it was found with no design to leave it there. According to R’Yochanan, “one is required to shake the money off the pillow only concerning a case where the pillow is needed for the sake of its use, but when one needs to move it for the sake of its place, one may move it while the money is on it.”

The gemara discusses possible remedies for one who realizes on Shabbes that he left something valuable in an unprotected place. (“Place a loaf of bread or a young child upon it and move it.”) Rav Ashi disagrees.

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